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more on shoaling

SOURCES:     http://www.seafriends.org.nz/oceano/waves.htm    Operational Oceanography in the 21st Century
                       http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/oceanography/courses_html/OCN201/littlepages/waves.html
                       http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/Library/487-12.pdf

Shoaling Effect

Occurs when a deep water wave moves into
shallow water 

the waves slow down AND get higher


Energy density is increased in order to maintain
the constant energy flux of the wave


Energy density varies on steepness of seabed


Shoaling Effect
    at 3 Hawaian beaches for a 12 ft. wave

  • 1.2 x at Makaha = 14ft

  • 1.6 x at Sunset Beach = 19ft

  • 2 x at Waianae = 24ft

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